Thursday, September 12, 2019

The influence of technology on modernist and avant-garde architecture Essay

The influence of technology on modernist and avant-garde architecture - Essay Example After the liberal-national revolutions of 1848, there was the need to expand the economy of the colonial territories and to fill the political, military and economic conditions with the traditional European. This led to the development of cities in its suburbs. In addition, the decrease in mortality because of the improved standards of living in terms of nutrition and medical techniques in urban areas resulted in urbanisation. The increase in population in urban areas led to transformation of old neighbourhoods into slums as well as entry of jerry-built houses that would provide shelter to people working in the factories. However, the Housing of the Working Classes Act of 1890 and the slum clearance Acts of 1868 and 1875 were established to provide quality housing. As the construction of new houses for workers began, several architectural designs developed in order to produce engaging and beautiful buildings and improve the overall appearance of the urban centres. According to Conrad s (25), in organic architecture, the building, its furnishings and its setting and environment are considered as one thing. Furnishings such as tables, chairs, musical instruments and cabinets are said to be part of the buildings, as well. However, the heating, lighting or ventilation can be incorporated together with other features in the building or excluded. Conrads (25) argues that a human dwelling place should be a complete work of art that is closely related to modern life and fit for people to live. It should include harmonious entity, which is beautiful and suitable in providing the needs of the dwellers. An example of such a building is shown below. Winslow House in Chicago (1893) Conrads (95) states it is through the new evolving techniques that people are able to discover new materials and new ways to construct objects; hence, enabling individuals to learn how to design objects and develop a new attitude towards design. This includes the living environment of vehicles and machines, limitation of certain characteristics such as colours and they should be readily accessible to all. Additionally, they should be economical in terms of space used, time, materials and money. This can be seen in Gropius office (1932) as shown below. Bauhaus argues that the necessities of life are the same for most people. Additionally, he states that the home and its furnishings are mass consumer goods and their design is as a result of reason other than a matter of passion. Machines that produce such products use steam and electricity in order to help people from working manually when producing their daily needs as well as to provide them with cheap products that are better than those produced by hand. According to Conrads (96), Bauhaus workshops are laboratories that are suitable for production of mass products, which are well developed and can be improved with time. An illustration of Bauhaus workshop is as shown below. According to Conrads (96), the Bauhaus represents that the contrast between the industry and the crafts is less marked by the difference in tools used than by the division of labor in the industry, as well as the quality of the work in the crafts. The past crafts have changed, and new ones are expected to emerge in a new and productive industry in which they will carry out work for industrial production. The experiments in the laboratory workshops will produce models and prototypes that will be implemented in the factories to produce quality work. Moreover, the products that have been produced in the Bauhaus are also been produced in other firms with are closely related to Bauhaus. Some of the architectural features that describe a new building according to Le Corbusier houses designs include the supports, the roof gardens, the free designing of the plan, the free design of the facade and the horizontal window. For the supports, it is necessary to distinguish between the non-supporting and the supporting elements,

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