Monday, June 3, 2019

The Strength Of Destination: Jamaica

The Strength Of Destination JamaicaTo effectively manage and market destination Jamaica for visitors appeal, close attendance is required as it relates to the advertising and selling of the destination as well as the maintenance of the tourism product to pull in visitors.Promote special publications that can attract visitors passim the year and enhance the image of the destination overseas.The Jamaica holidaymaker Board can promote special events interchangeable Reggae Summer Festival and void and Blues Concert. These events attract thousands of international visitors from all over the world annually. However through this market our music is marketed throughout the world and has put reggae music atop the charts internationally. This special event has as well as attracted artist, producers, promoters and visitors which increase the number of visitors entering the country within that given period.Exploit the advantages of internet technology to market Jamaica.There be differe nt reasons why throng exploit the internet technology to advertise and market a destination or a distinctive product. One of the major advantages is that advertising on the internet is cost efficient and is more conducive to users of the World Wide Web. Millions of people are online each day and therefore they can view advertisements whenever they want. In addition, it allows for target marketing which is more effective on the internet than anywhere else. Likewise, internet marketing allows for interaction and feedback from viewers through surveys, reports, tweets etc. and therefore this in addition help to overcome bars of distance.Promote a greater awareness locally of the importance of tourism in the Jamaica economy through the local communication programs.The Jamaica Tourist Board can assist local residence of the significance of becoming more aware of tourism in the Jamaica economy by launching a Jamaica tourism awareness program that will non only educate locals about tour ism but also inform them about the importance of preserving the surround for sustainable development. The importance of tourism in the Jamaica economy can be brought across to locals through other forms of communication programs such as seminars, workshops and cultural distribute manoeuvres.Promote Jamaica to JamaicansThe program that is used to promote Jamaica to Jamaicans is called experience Jamaica. Although we are citizens of the beautiful destination Jamaica not very often do we explore the opportunities of experiencing the different aspects of tourism offered throughout destination Jamaica due to cost constrain. However this program is designed with the experience of giving locals such privileges. All attractions and special hotels within the destination is case at a special reduce rate and sold to locals allowing them the opportunity to experience Jamaica affordably.Achieve a greater integration with Jamaica Vacation and Jamaica Reservation help so that the combined eff orts of these agencies will have full impact on the market place.The Jamaica Vacation is the company that is responsible for getting blood linelift into the country and likewise the Jamaica Reservation Service both companies combined together will ensure that visitors are secured for both airlift and hotel accommodation into the country. bone up analysis of the techniques that were used in question 1.The SWOT analysis can simply be described as the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats which focus on the micro and macro environment. However, according to the Jamaica Tourist Board, the SWOT analysis is the fundamental strategy which is used to accentuate the positives, reduce the negatives as far as possible, exploit the opportunities, and at the same time, recognize the threats.STRENGTH OF ending JAMAICAThe Flag, Jamaica flag is the to the highest degree recognized throughout the world because of its quaint combination of colours with each depicting a different significa nt meaning. Black, representing the hardship of the people of the nation. Green, the luscious mountains. And last but not least Gold, the magnificent sunshine.The Climate unlike other countries that experience snow and weather of different kind, destination Jamaica is merry to have tropical weather all year round which attract visitor to our island.The Language Jamaica is the premier English speaking destination throughout the Caribbean with a blend of creole which is so unique that all visitors who are vacationing in Jamaica will want to learn the language.The Geographic Location Jamaica on the great Antilles is situated 150 kilometers south of Cuba and 160 kilometers west of Haiti. Jamaica is the largest of the West Indian island. It has an area of 11,424 square kilometers, and is 243 kilometers gigantic. Jamaica is in close proximity to the United States.Special Events Jamaica soldiery some of the best events throughout the year such as Jamaica jazz and blues festival in the month of January, Bob Marley Birthday Celebrations in the month of February, Soul Rebellion Spring Break Party held in March, Trelawny Yam Festival in April, 20th Annual Jamaica point of intersection qualify (JAPEX) in May, Ocho Rios Jazz Festival in June, Portland Jerk Festival in July, Mello-Go-Round, Independence and Emancipation Celebration in August, Wine and Food Festival in September, Jamaica Product Exchange 11 in October, Port Royal Music Festival and Restaurant Week in November and New Years Harbour Festival and Fireworks in December. This goes to show some of the most popularly listed events that attract visitors to destination Jamaica on numerous occasions throughout the year.Accessibility Destination Jamaica is easily accessible by air at anyone of our cardinal international airports. Donald Sangsters International Airport in Montego Bay. Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston and the Ian Flemings International Airport in Boscobel. It is also accessible by land and by sea at anyone of our three cruise ship pier whether it is Montego Bay, Falmouth or Ocho Rios.Easily Trained Staff wherever we go we easily adapt to changes and do not require much training to effectively carry out a given task.Culture The cryptical and diverse assimilation and heritage of Jamaica is renowned throughout the world. Jamaica multicultural history is best summarized in the national motto Out of many, one people.Tourism Product the 3 S which makes up the tourism product sun, sea and sand.Agricultural opportunities According to the Jamaica observer published April 30, 2009 Jamaica outstanding performance at the Beijing Olympics brought refreshful focus on Jamaican food yam and tubers in particular which in some quarter was credited for Usain Bolts meteoric and historic achievements. In addition, imploring investors to take advantage of the opportunity to invest in Jamaica.Culture and historical heritage Jamaica culture and historical heritage aptly describ es the music, cuisine, tradition, art and clothing, religion and syndicate lore.Bauxite and Alumina considered the most important sector of Jamaican economy accounting for about 10% GDP, Enabling Jamaica to become the leading bauxite producer in the world.renewable postcode sources supply The country has the advantages of utilizing renewable energy sources which comprise wind energy, solar thermal, wave energy and gas from animal waste just to get a few.Focus on prudent fiscal management maintain fiscal records and procedures of the agency that provides protection for the resources of the agency as well as records and procedures which begin economy effectiveness and operation efficiency.Tax Administration DevelopmentAirlift, including the national airline Caribbean Airline formerly Air JamaicaWEAKNESS OF DESTINATION JAMAICAImage in the market place, unsafe destinationInsufficient schedule air service from some markets for example Europe wishing of man-made attractions/developme nt of congenital attractionsLack of enough large facilities to adequately host large meetings and conventions over 300 peopleCrime and culture of indiscipline and lawless(prenominal)nessPoor human rights organizationPoor representation of electorsLow literacy and poor school governancePoverty economic dependenceInefficient court systemHigh cost of energyPoor organization of small businessesUnfriendly tax policiesPolitical systemsInefficient BureaucracyPoor infrastructureInaccessible garrison communitiesOPPORTUNITIES OF DESTINATION JAMAICAGlobal retrieval increased marketsImport substitutions opportunitiesRenewable energy opportunitiesPoor structure and dependency means greater opportunities to growPublic sector rationalizationTax rejuvenate and simplificationDomestic tourismCruise passengers as potential stopoversTHREATS OF DESTINATION JAMAICAPollution of EnvironmentVisitors HarassmentGlobal Recovery inflation, higher interest evaluateRising oil and commodity pricesFocus on mo re investor friendly emerging economiesupcoming electionsfiscal appetite for revenueInadequate Health business organisationThe value of the Tourism Marketing PlanThe Tourism Marketing Plan, establish growth based on a sustainable market position in line with market trends which helps to enhance the visitors experience through mobilizing investment by increasing the types and quality of attractions. This gives awareness in the market place. The marketing plan whitethorn be part of the business plan. A solid marketing strategy is the foundation of a well written marketing plan. Thus the value of the plan is to provide a strategic vision for the development of the industry and a framework through which that strategic vision can be realized.Three processes composite in developing the Tourism Marketing PlanIntroduction set out the main theme of the Tourism Marketing Plan. It starts with a discussion of what embed sustainable tourism development and then outline the main strategic obj ectives of the marketing plan and the measure designed to achieve them.Sustainable Tourism the aim of the marketing plan to move the industry on a path of sustainability which includes a key finding of the Diagnostic and Strategic options.Strategic Objectives to ensure consensus of the in store(predicate) direction of the industry and the strategic objectives set for it. The diagnostic and strategic options report set out three strategic options for planning the future growth of the industry.The three options areAccelerating growth so that tourism can play the lead role in economic development envisaged in the national industrial policy (NIP) with particular regard to serving as a lead sector of the economy earning foreign exchange and creating employment.Enhancing visitors experience, through developing and satisfying diversifying the product, to improve the long term competitive positioning of the industry and to achieve self-sustaining growth based on word- of mouth referrals and high repeat visitors.Achieving sustainability through improving socio-economic integration, by putting communities at the Centre of the tourism planning process and by helping to preserve Jamaicas rich heritage of the national and built environment and its unique history and culture.Five external organizations that could assist the Jamaica Tourist Board with implementation of a Destination Marketing PlanImmunology Techniques and FunctionsImmunology Techniques and Functionsa) Acquired resistanceThe efficient and protective receipt against dermatomycosis is a carrel-mediated response of the DTH, characterized namely by the action of macrophages as effector cells, interferon- secretion from type 1 T-helper lymphocytes and by some key cytokines like interferon- (IFN-). Immune detection and chemotaxis occur via low-molecular weight chemotactic factors or alternative complement pathway activation. However, the immune response that is raised, and especially the degree of inflammation , varies according to the dermatophyte species, the host species and the pathophysiological post of the host.26In general, the zoophilic species cause more inflammatory infections which may heal spontaneously and result in relative resistance to reinfection. The anthropophilic species usually cause more chronic, less circumscribed infections which result in less resistance to reinfection.26b) Hypersensitivity (Trichophytin Reaction)The trichophytin reaction is the term used for cutaneous hypersensitivity to dermatophyte antigens injected intradermally in humans. Both immediate- and slow-type reactions occur, but the latter is most often associated with infection.26Trichophyton species can be isolated from patients with deep-seated trichophytosis in a liquid medium consisting of beef extract, peptone, and maltose. later 2 to 3 months at room temperature, the growth is ground and filtered.26In patients with deep-seated trichophytosis, parenteral injection of trichophytin caused si gns and symptoms analogous to those induced in tuberculous patients by injection of tuberculin general toxicant reactions including elevated temperature, perspiration, loss of appetite, headache, and pain in the joints. There was inflammation, formation of pustules, and burning at the injection site.26Dermatophytid reactions (45% of patients) are inflammatory eczematous allergic skin reactions at sites distant from primary fungous infection. Being KOH and culture negative, it is associated with a DTH response to trichophytin shield and may involve a local DTH response to systemically absorbedfungal antigen.26c) AntibodiesAntibody formation does not seem to be protective. The dermatophyteantigen is thought to be processed by epidermal Langerhans cells and presented in local lymph nodes to T lymphocytes which proliferate, migrate to the infected site, and produce inflammation. The epidermal barrier becomes permeable to transferring and migrating cells leading to spontaneous re final result of lesions. Trichophytin skin test is now positive and clearing of second infection will be more rapid. Rivalier showed that a dermatophytic infection in humans results in a relative resistance to subsequent infection calledle phenomene de la reaction accelereeorle phenomene de Bruno Bloch, mainly by the inflammatory forms (kerion), caused by zoophilic species, but not always follow the more chronic anthropophilic infections. Fungi which do not invade the cop follicle do not seem to give rise to an equivalent immunity when growing in the horny layer of the smooth skin. In contrast, a study could not demonstrate such acquired immunity in experimentalT. rubruminfection of smooth skin.26d) Non-Specific ResistanceNatural defenses against dermatophytes depend on immunological and nonimmunological mechanisms. Many nonspecific factors may account for natural resistance to infection. It is mainly related to the serum factor, a fungistatic substance in serum of normal individuals a nd animals. This factor is believed to limit the growth of the dermatophytes to the keratinized layers, i.e., prevent their invasion of financial backing tissues.26Host factors that help limiting the infection to keratinized tissue include their preference for cooler skin temperatures than the normal body temperature, serum inhibitory factors(beta-globulins, ferritin and other alloy chelators) binding to iron essential for growth of dermatophytes. Unsaturated transferrin inhibits the growth of dermatophytes by binding to the hyphae. A growth modifying, 2 macroglobulin keratin inhibitor, has also been determine in serum. The natural resistance of scalp to1. Direct Microscopic ExaminationDirect microscopy provides an early and reasonably reliable order of diagnosing or excluding fungal infections.Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) preparationDirect mounts are made by mixing a small portion of the material in 2-3 drops of 10% KOH on a microscope swoop. A cover transmutation is set(p) over KOH specimen and the slide is gently heated. The slide is allowed to cool and ripen for few minutes in advance examination. The KOH cleans the specimen by digesting proteinaceous debris, bleaching pigments and loosening sclerotic material without damaging fungus, making hyphal forms easier to see. The slides are examined nether bright field microscope with low condenser, first under 10x and then under 40x. The hyphae stand out as highly refractile long undulating branched septate threads. At times these hyphae fragment into rounded or barrel shaped arthrospores. The arthrospores are outside the hair shaft in chains in a mosaic pattern or intrapilar depending on the species convoluted and whether it is endothrix or ectothrix. 20% KOH are used for nail samples. In case the nails do not soften satisfactorily, the slide may be kept in an incubator at 370C for 1 hour. tomentum should be examined as soon as possible after mounting. near modifications of KOH preparationAddition of 5% glycerol to 25% KOH or NaOH prevents desiccation.20% KOH dissolved in 40% DMSO helps in rapid penetration and maceration of tissue without resorting to heating.36Addition of Parker Superchrome Blue-black ink to KOH solution selectively colors the hyphae making them more prominent.Sodium sulphide may also be used as a clearing agent.Eosin 1% may be added to KOH to stain the keratin. It lends a pinkish background art object fungal elements remain unstained.37Modified Parkers ink and 1% Eosin method Eosin 1% is added to Parkers ink in 21 proportion. The mixture is painted over the affected site and allowed to dry. Apply cellophane tape, gently press, leave off it, stick over glass slide and observe under microscope. Background stains pink and fungal elements stain blue.2. Calcofluor white stainCalcofluor white is a light brightener which selectively binds to chitin and cellulose in the fungal cell wall. It fluoresces light blue color when exposed to ultraviolet light (346-365nm).3. Acridine Orange38A drop of 0.01% acridine orange may be added to KOH and observed under fluorescent microscope.4. PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff)38Nail clipping stained with PAS is more rewarding as compared to KOH wet mount. The polysaccharides of fungi are oxidized by periodic acid to form aldehyde groups that yield magenta coloured compound with Schiffs fuchsin sulfide.5. Gomori Methenamine Silver Stain38This stain works on the principle of waiver of aldehyde groups and their subsequent identification by reduced silver method. The aldehyde reduces methenamine silver nitrate mazy resulting in brown black staining fungal cell wall due to deposition of reduced silver wherever aldehydes are located.CultureThe most common media used for the isolation of dermatophytes is Sabourauds Dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide to inhibit bacterial and saprobic fungal contamination, incubated at three temperatures i.e., 250 C, 300C and 370CDermatophyte test medium (DTM) is used for the presumptive identification of dermatophytes. On incubation at 250C, the dermatophyte test media turns red due to change in color of the indicator phenol red by increased pH through their metabolic activity while most fungi do not.38 Potato flakes agar amended with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol is available as Rapid Sporulating Medium to promote rapid conidiation and colony pigmentation.39SDA with 1% thiamine can be used for sporulation. The media should be inoculated and kept at room temperature for minimum of weeks. Sporulation usually occurs in 7 10 days. Some stains like T.verrucosum may take longer and some stains of T.tonsurans grow better when incubated at 370 C.IdentificationIdentification is based onColony characteristics in excellent culture on SDAMicroscopic morphology1. Colony characteristics39In observing gross colony morphology, note the color of the jump and the reverse of the colony, the texture of the surface (powdery, granular, wooly, cottony, velvety or glabrous) the topography (elevation, folding, margins, etc.,) and the rate of growth.2. Microscopic morphologyThe appearance and arrangement of the conidia and other structures may be determined by tease mounts or slide culture preparation mounted on lactophenol cotton blue. Sometimes special media like corn meal agar, potato glucose agar, lactrimel agar, rapid sporulation medium may be required to stimulate sporulation.a. Tease mount (Lactophenol Cotton Blue)For preparing a mount, a portion of fungal fragment is removed with a spud and is pester on a glass slide in a drop of LCB stain using 2 teasing needles. A cover slip is placed and examined under the microscope.b. Slide cultureMicroscopic structures are beautifully preserved for study in fine details. A microscopic slide is placed on a bent glass rod at the bottom of a petri dish along with 1-2 cover slips and a filter paper. Petri dishes are closed with their lid, disguised with craft paper and sterilized using hot air oven. Block of 1x2cm of Sabourauds agar poured into petri dishes up to a depth of 4mm is cut using sterile scalpel blade. The thwart is transferred to the surface of the glass slide. The agar block is inoculated at four sides using the fungal strain to be identified. The inoculated block is covered with sterile cover slip and incubated at 250 C. A little sterile distilled water is added on the filter paper to avoid drying of agar. When growth appears, a drop of LCB is placed on a slide and cover slip from block is placed over it. Likewise drop of stain is placed on glass slide of the slide culture after removing agar block fresh cover slip is applied over it and is examined under the microscope.38,40c. Scotch Tape TechniqueA 4 cm strip of scotch tape No. 800 is looped back on itself with the adhesive side out and held between the thumb and index finger. The adhesive side is touch firmly to the surface of the fungal colony. It is gently pulled and is placed in a small drop of LCB on a m icroscopic slide.Physiological tests1. In vitro hair perforation testThis is performed to differentiate between T.mentagrophytes and T.rubrum as well as M.canis and M.equinum. This test is taken positive when dermatophyte species show wedge shaped perforation in hair. It is positive in T.mentagrophytes and M.canis.2. Urease TestIs done on Christensens medium. T.mentagrophytes hydrolyze urea thereby turns medium red while T.rubrum shows negative result.3. Special nutritional requirementsThe method employs a casamino acids basal medium i.e., vitamin free Trichophyton agar, (T1) and to which various vitamins are added i.e., inositol (T2), thiamine + inositol (T3), thiamine (T4), and nicotinic acid (T5). In addition, the series includes an ammonium nitrate basal medium (T6) to which histidine is added (T7). After inoculation, incubated at room temperature or 370C (if T.verrucosum is suspected) and read after 7 and 14 days. The amount of growth is graded from 0-4+.4. Growth on Polished R ice GrainsThis is a useful test for differentiating M.audouinii from M.canis and from other dermatophytes that typically grow and sporulate on rice grains.5. Temperature tolerance and temperance enhancementUsed for distinguishing T.mentagrophytes complex from T.terrestre, T.mentagrophytes from M.persicolor and T.verrucosum from T.schoenleinii. At 370 C, members of T.mentagrophytes complex show good result whereas T.terrestre does not grow and M.persicolor generally grows poorly or not at all growth of T.verrucosum and T.soudanense is enhanced but that of T.schoenleinii and M.ferruginum is not.6. Hair bait techniqueThis technique is used for the isolation of geophilic species like M.gypseum from soil.Immunodiagnosis38Skin tests with dermatophyte antigen trichophytin are used for the diagnosis of dermatophytosis.Trichophytin is a crude extract from dermatophytes producing positive delayed type hypersensitivity in most of the adults.The patients without delayed type reaction are more s usceptible to chronic dermatophytosis.Serological testsVarious serological tests like immunodiffusion are done to establish the diagnosis of dermatophytosis.Animal pathogenicityIt is done on guinea pigs. M.canis, M.gypseum and T.mentagrophytes may be established more readily in laboratory animals as compared to other species. It is done for studying nature of lesions and immunity produced by the organism.Molecular Identification TechniquesMethods used are largely based on arbitrarily set PCR or restriction fragment length polymorphism generated from PCR products. An oligonucleotide probe for T.rubrum has been developed. Nested PCR targeting Chitin Synthase I (CHSI) gene in skin and hair specimen of patients clinically suspected with dermatophytosis is used.41

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