Monday, June 3, 2019

Enterprise resource planning

opening resource planning1. INTRODUCTIONEnterprise Resource Planning (ERP) transcriptions argon among the most every important(predicate) soak up of merchandise cultivation technologies to emerge in the last decade. The basic plan of Enterprise Systems is focuse mainly on standardization, synchronization and modify efficiency.Thousands of major look firms and increasing anatomys from otherwise sectors as well, either have just completed their first ERP writ of executions or be in the shopping m still told of this major undertaking. ERP g everyplacenances hind end be defined as configurable information systems packages which coalesce information and functioning across organisational functional atomic number 18as (Kumar and Hillegersberg, 2000).The benefits of Enterprise Systems are very meaning(a) coordinating answeres and information, reducing carrying termss, decreasing cycle time and amend responsiveness to guest need (Davenport 2000).Keeping the tramp on schedule, under budget and the superior are usually are the main problem that has been face by the verbalism industry. Construction industry is champion of the major industries in contributing the economy, eventhough it is mensurable to be one of the most highly fragemented, inefficient and geographically detached industries in the world (Chung, 2007).To overcome this inefficiency, a number of solutions have long been offered including implementation of IT.In the context of the construction industry, ERP would be defined as a estimator-based line of reasoning focal point system that integrates all processes and data of the business, including engineering/ foundation, planning, procurement, construction and sustentation/operations (Tatari et al. 2007). Now a days numbers of major construction companies are implementing the coordinated IT solutions much(prenominal) as ERP systems to better integrate their miscellaneous functions. However, these integrated systems in const ruction present a set of unique challenges, different from those in the manufacturing or other service sector industries. Each construction project is characterized by a unique set of site conditions, a unique performance team, and the temporary temperament of the relationships between project participants. This means a construction business organic law needs extensive customization of pre-integrated business practical applications from ERP vendors. Unfortunately, such an extensive customization can lead a construction firm to ERP implementation lead astrayure.The ERP applications that are used by construction industry can be classified into two distinct groups pre-packaged Software, and Web-based Project Management System (WPMS). Currently, the worlds biggest pre-packaged ERP software program contributors involve SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft, J.D. Edwards, and Baan. SAP is state to have intimately 60% of the world market (Holland, Light, Kawalek, 1999).2. Problem StatementERP has become an essential part of try method over the globe. Use of ERP in other sectors is being stable and growing. Its censorious influence within designing novel business environments and procedures has been noteworthy. Different organizations in assorted subdivisions have dedicated to compensable out and have already paid out large summations of capital for the implementation of ERP in their organizations. These equivalent companies possess been able towards document major reformments, both concrete and elusive, within their campaigns as a outcome of ERP implementation.Large number of organizations have implemented ERP in their process and make it much effective and profitable. The ilk observation can be made for some of the most successful corporations in the world. The head means needs towards be asked why is this? What are a number of the listened benefits that inflict corporations devote towards the implementation of ERP within their organizations? harmonize to Oliver, Romm (2002), in common with other types of investment activity the sop upion of an ERP system is a purposive interjection by an organization for bringing about a stark naked state of affairs that is judged to be superior to the current state. The most bulk valued grammatical constituent that are often stated as a intent for performing to the implementation of ERPIntegrationAccess of InformationImprovement in process rumination in businessDissatisfaction with out dated bequest systemsAfter implementing ERP companies have been competent to enhance costumer relation, strengthen delivering the flexible supply ambit partnerships, improving the organizational flexibility, improve decision-making competency and decreasing task culmination time and cost (Ahmed, and Ahmed, Azhar, Mallikarjuna, 2003). Although Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has been completely applied by various associations internationally, within almost everybody of the else principal industrial sectors, its util ization in the building industry has been limited to exert via a few large organizations The greatest gatherings of construction administration that have either failed in their efforts to take on this technology, or are not very apparent with it are Small and Mid size of it Construction Organizations. These organizations comprises the strength of the construction industry and have their possess specified commercial and operational needs. The failure of Small and Mid Size Construction Organizations to adopt ERP, despite all its promise advantages, is a problem that desires to be addressed.It can be proposed that2. RESEARCH PURPOSEThe overall purpose of this research is to assess the critical success factors for the implementation of ERP systems to arrest construction industry and to what extent it is being used in enterprise integration and the benefits derived from using ERP systems. Further much(prenominal), success factors coupled with the organizational performance will be ass essed and validated. The relationship between the perceived performances will be assessed against the influence of upper counseling support, role of project champion in managing change in the organization, the take of organizational emphasis on communication and information, and organizational experience with ERP systems.3. RESEARCH AIMThe proposed research endeavours to investigate the following questionsWhat issues and problems faced by Construction organisations during the implementation of ERP systems?How can problems be reduced in implementing complex new technology into the existing bodily structure of an organization?What must be considered, from the organizational as well as the technical perspective, to effectively integrate the technology and people in the organization who use it?Although this study cannot fully dissolving agent these questions, this research will provide valuable information concerning the technological and management systems used to support Construc tion organizations. paygrade of implementation and problem issues will sue to nevertheless support management decision making.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONSThis research will identify the characteristics of ERP systems used in todays Construction industry. The results of this research will provide special trustworthyistic information for construction organizations seeking to implement ERP systems, providing recommendations pertaining to the issues that must be addressed for companies to avoid critical problems in their own implementation of ERP systems.Questions to addressWhat are the critical success factors for implementing ERP system in a Construction organization?Is upper management support crucial to the success of ERP systems?What are the change management strategies the management should employed to help the successful implementation and performance of ERP systems?Is the success of ERP system depends upon the level of effective communication and the employee education and trainin g?The generalized question to which this research will contribute is What are the basic factors that get a line the success of ERP systems implementation in regards to the ability of the system to influence organizational performance? When an organization sinks to implement and integrate an lengthened, inter-departmental computer system into its operations, what issues must be addressed to indemnify that the computer application system will effectively contribute to organizational performance improvement?5. RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThe objectives of this research are as followsTo independently obtain current information regarding the state of ERP systems in Construction organization today.To determine the critical success factors for implementing an ERP system in Construction organisation.To survey current drug users about factors that contribute to the success of ERP systems, especially in regards to effective communication, user training techniques, change management and the effect o f upper management support. This will serve to validate previous research as well as obtain more information about successful experiences in industry.6. Research methodThe research method appropriate for this research project will be of qualitative nature through and through an interpretive case study, where data collection techniques will consist of thorough literature review, secondary data review of documentation regarding the ERP project and interviews from sr. computer, technical and management consultants.2. Literarture Review1. INTRODUCTIONLiterature is a term that refers to all sources of published data and Literature Review is a written unofficial about the findings from the literature (Hussey and Hussey, 1997). A literature review helps in establishing what research has been conducted on the researchers elect area of study and also to identify what research is soon in progress (Saunders et al., 2000).In distinguish to research into Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) sy stems, a thorough literature review has been conducted with a centre of upkeep placed on ERP systems and the implementation of these systems in Construction organizations. Previous papers on ERP implementation projects will be reviewed focusing on successes and previous failures in ERP projects. As the research site is Hindustan Construction Company Ltd., the coonstruction sector has also been reviewed.2. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING2.1The ERP PhenomenaERP systems are highly integrated software packages (Holland et al., 1999) that can be customised to cater for the specific needs of an organisation (Boudreau and Robey, 2000 Esteves and Pastor, 2001 Laberis, 1999). The concepts that have been evaluated and, at times, utilized by construction organizations in achieving the goal of improved efficiency through better management of collaborated knowledge is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)(Negahban and Baecher 2008). ERP systems have been defined to be a computer program that provide s a general functional platform for all departments of an enterprise with their management functions being integrated into the program (Jingsheng Halpin, 2003).Several definitions from the published literature are given to further explain the concept ERP (enterprise resource planning systems) comprises of a commercial software package that promises the seamless integration of all the information flowing through the company-financial, accounting, human resources, supply chain and customer information (Davenport, 1998). ERP systems are configurable information systems packages that integrate information and information-based processes within and across functional areas in an organization (Kumar and Van Hillsgersberg, 2000). One database, one application and a unified embrasure across the entire enterprise (Tadjer, 1998). ERP systems are computer-based systems designed to process an organizations transactions and facilitate integrated and real-time planning, production, and customer reception (OLeary, 2001). Kapp et al. (2001) defined ERP as a system of integrated procedure, rules and algorithms designed to function consistently time and time again (p. 85).The key point in an ERP system is integration. The purpose of ERP is to create one computer system that can perform all the functions of every department within an organization by linking all the departments into one single database. What ERP really does is organize, codify, and standardize an enterprises business processes and data. According to Negahban, S, 2008 By utilizing this technology would allow the construction industry to harness the power of collective knowledge. In addition, regulatory and competitive forces, financial demands of owners, and an ever-shortening timeline to finish projects contributed to an increased pace of the utilization of this technology in the construction industry. It took the construction industry longer than other industries to realize the richness of the utilization of IT applications in improving the possibility of ultimate success in an integrated project environment.2.2 Evolution of ERPThe history of ERP can be traced keister in 1960s, when the system focuses mainly towards inventory control (Seo, 1999). During 1970s, a shift of focus towards MRP (Material Requirement Planning) was observed. This system helped in translating the master production schedule into requirements for individual units like sub assemblies, components and other raw material planning and procurement. This system was involved mainly in planning the raw material requirements (Kalakota and Robinson, 2001).Then, in 1980s came the concept of MRP-II (Manufacturing Resource Planning) which involved optimizing the entire plant production process (Seo, 1999 Kalakota and Robinson, 2001). In the beginning, MRP-II was an extension of MRP to include shop floor and distribution management activities. Afterwards, it was further all-embracing to include areas like Finance, Human Resou rce, Engineering, Project Management etc (Seo, 1999). This gave birth to ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) which covered the cross-functional coordination and integration in support of the production process (Seo, 1999 Kalakota and Robinson, 2001).The role of enterprise resource planning (ERP) does not match its name. It is no longer link up to planning and resources, but is rather related to the enterprise aspect of the name. ERP attempts to unify all systems of departments together into a single, integrated software program based on a single database so that various departments can more easily parting information and communicate with from each one other.(chung,2007).The ERP include the entire range of a companys activities. It addresses both system requirements and technology aspects including client/server distributed architecture, RDBMS, object oriented programing etc (Bancroft, 1996). ERP systems are designed as an integrated set of software modules, all linked to a common database, handling a host of corporate functions such as finance, human resources, material management, sales etc. (Slater, 1998).Russell and Taylor (1995) suggested that the ERP of today differ from traditional MRP II system in the areas of relational database management, graphical user interface (GUI), fourth generation languages (4GL), client-server architecture and open system capabilities. In addition, Kapp et al. (2001), stated that the differences between ERP and MRP II is the inclusion of a variety of manufacturing processes within ERP, in which in advance(p) ERP software is able to handle both discrete change state orders and flow orders, JIT and MRP, EDI, and hand-entered orders (p. 86). Wainewright (2002) also stated that MRP was used for tracking suppliers, work-in progress and the output of faultless goods, while ERP was used for all type of business with additional functions including financials, payroll and human resources management. Furthermore, Kremzar and Wall ace (2001) also stated that ERP is far better than MRP II for three reasons a) ERP applies a single set of resource planning hammers across the entire enterprise, b) ERP provides real-time integration of sales, in operation(p), and financial data, and c) ERP connects resource planning approaches to the extended supply chain of customers and suppliers. According to Koch(2002) the main reasons that companies take ERP are summarize infraBecause of its Integrated Financial Information i.e. to create a single version of information which cannot be questioned because all the members of the company use the same system.The information is integrated on one system rather than scattered on many different systems that cannot communicate which each other, so that the company can track orders and can coordinate with different related departments across many different location at the same time.It standarized and travel rapidly up the process using single integated system which can save time an d increase productivity.Reduces inventory by improving the observation ability of the order process inside the company.The popularity of ERP systems started to soar in 1994 when SAP, a German based company, released its next generation software known as R/3 (SAP, 2003). In the following years, companies began to pour billions into ERP systems offered by SAP and its major competitors such as Oracle, Baan, J.D. Edwards, etc. Recently, ERP vendors add more modules and functions as add-ons to the core modules giving birth to the new term i.e. extended ERPs or ERP II (Adam and Sammon, 2004). It is the enterprise systems for the 21st century. These ERP extensions include advanced planning and programing (APS), e-business solutions such as customer relationship management (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM) (Bhattacherjee, 2000). ERP II systems are about optimizing the supply chain through collaboration with trading partners. It crosses all sectors and segments of business, including service industries, government, and asset-based industries like dig (Turban et al. 2001). According to Zrimsek (2003), ERP II systems is nett-based, open to integrate and interoperate with other systems, and built or so modules or components that allow users to choose just the functionality they need. Figure 1 summarizes the historical events related with ERP.2.3 ERP Functions, Purpose of ERP SystemsEnterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are software driven business management system which integrates all facets of the business, including manufacturing, planning, sales and distribution, financials and human resources (Kuang et al., 2001). It is a system that integrates all information that runs through an organisation (Davenport, 1998) and can be categorised as a large information system. It can be customised to cater the needs of an organization (Watson and Schneider, 1999). During 1990s ERP systems became the de-facto standard for replacement of legacy systems in large, and particularly multi-national companies (Parr and Shanks, 2000)ERP systems become more widely implemented, software applications are develop to help business managers implement ERP in diverse business activities such as project planning and management, subcontracting, material tracking, service, finance and human resources (tatari,2009)However, enterprise systems expanded to include back office functions (such as operations, logistics, finance, and human resources) and non transaction-based systems (Davenport, 1998) or front-office functions (such as sales, marketing, and customer service), as integral components of ERP systems (Davenport, 1998 Chen, 2001). This expansion result from the emergence of Supply Chain Optimization (SCO) (Chen, 2001), or Supply Chain Management (SCM) (Turban et al., 2001) and CRM strategies and systems (Chen, 2001), as illustrated in Figure 2. Turban et al. (2001) referred to this beyond the corporate walls integration as extreme integration (p. 304). Turb an et al. (2001) further commented that in this approach to integration, SCM can be viewed as the brain and ERP as the strong body (p. 305).While the names and numbers of modules in an ERP system provided by various software vendors may differ, a typical system integrates all these functions by allowing its modules to share and transfer information freely and centralizing all information in a single database findible by all modules (Chen, 2001). Provided in Figure 3 is an overview of an ERP system.Due to the importance of these systems in terms of added functionality over legacy systems and potential integration benefits, a large number of organisations are adopting these systems to manage their operations (Ross, 1999). They adopt these systems due(p) to various technical or business reasons. technological reasons include Y2K issues (myth), replacing legacy system that did not work etc. Organisations that have successfully implemented ERP systems view them as one of the most impo rtant innovations that have lead to the realization of substantial tangible and intangible improvements in a variety of areas (Davenport, 2000).Five other reasons for acquiring an ERP system are 1) to integrate financial information, 2) to integrate customer order information, 3) to standardize and speed up manufacturing processes, 4) to reduce inventory level, and 5) to standardize Human Resource information (Koch, 2002). According to Kremzar and Wallace (2001), operating the business in a rapidly changing and highly competitive environment is the primary purpose of implementing an ERP system.Various studies have been done focussing on adoption and implementation of software applications (Harrison et al., 1997 Lassila and Brancheau 1999). However, the enterprise-wide implications, high resource commitment, high potential business benefits and risks associated with ERP systems make their implementation a much more complex employ in innovation and change management than any other so ftware package (Nelson and Somers, 2001 Gefen, 2000). Radding (1999) argued that when an organisation puts millions of dollars into a core business application and reengineers its business processes around it, the system is destined to become much more than an application.2.4 General Perspective of Todays ERP SystemsFor over a decade the ERP system has had major impact on the manufacturing industry. similarly manufacturing companies, the ERP system has also gone further to serve the other industries. According to Boyle (2000), the ERP system is also linked with the web and e- commerce applications and beginning to use web browsers as the graphical user interface.Management was not using ERP to its full potential. Today, ERP is the foundation of businesses domestically and globally (White et al., 1999). It is used as a management tool and gives organizations a great competitive advantage (Koch, 2002). As ERP systems become more widely implemented, software applications are developed to help business managers implement ERP in diverse business activities such as project planning and management, subcontracting, material tracking, service, finance and human resources.(tatari,2009) Most of the ERP packages, today, provide multiple language and currency capabilities, allowing operations in different countries to become more integrated (Computerworld, 1998). In an era of globalization, such characteristics are very appealing for organizations desiring to expand their activities worldwide without losing control over them. The popularity of ERP is evidenced in a study that showed that nearly 19 percent of organizations across all industry sectors have installed ERP software (Computer Economics, 1999). The study also showed that the popularity of ERP continues to rise, with 34 percent of the surveyed organizations investigating, piloting, or implementing ERP packages. Davenport (1998) characterized ERP as the most important development in the corporate use of informatio n technology in the 1990s (p. 122).2.5 ERP Systems and Construction OrganizationsIn the construction industry, because of the fragmented nature of the business, ERP implementation and utilization has not reached the same level as the other industrial sectors however, the construction industry has finally wake to importance of ERP, even though it is lagging behind other major industries that have been utilizing ERP to improve their efficiencies and bottom lines. (negahban,2008)There has been a remarkable improvement in both the speed and ability to conform to logical, customer-oriented business processes with the configurable and more flexible ERP systems (Donovan, 1998). In fact, now days, the management can chose from number of ERP products that come with multiple beat out practice options. The old MRP systems were very rigid as predefined business processes were embedded in the software making it difficult to adapt to the real needs of a manufacturing business (Seo, 1999). Custo mizing an off-the-shelf MRP system was expensive, difficult, risky and unusually time-consuming. As a result, companies had to make their order fulfilment process in such a way so as to accommodate the vendors predefined MRP software process but it greatly limits the managements ability to adjust their order fulfilment process to cope with changing customer requirements and to create a competitive advantage (Donovan, 1998). With todays developments in ERP software technology, companies have an opportunity not only to configure business processes at much more reasonable cost and risk but also to create the opportunity for a competitive advantage (Kalakota and Robinson, 2001).The success of ERP in manufacturing enterprises resulted in its adoption by some large construction companies (ML Payton Consultants 2002 Voordijk et al. 2003). The high expectation of achieving all-round cost savings and service improvements is very much dependent on how good the chosen ERP system fits to the or ganizational functionalities and how well the tailoring and configuration process of the system matched with the business culture, dodge and structure of the organization. By implementing right ERP system, the organization significantly improve its entire order-to-delivery process, increase its ability to service customers at a lower cost and also better forecast its sales and other business activities, which is a competitive advantage (Harvard Business School, 1997).With ERP, it is possible to share and exchange information in digital format throughout the project life cycle. Thus, information is stored only once and all project participants are able to access this information in real-time(tatari,2009)Generally an ERP system is expected to improve both backbone and front-end functions simultaneously. Organizations decide to install ERP systems for many tangible and intangible benefits and strategical reasons. In various cases the calculation of return on investment (ROI) is weight ed against the many intangible and strategic benefits (Gefen, 2000). However, to get the benefits of ERP systems, organizations need to undertake some problems and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages that organizations face after implementing ERP are given belowBenefits of ERP systemsIntegrating the organizations activities by processing a large majority of an organizations transactions (OLeary, 2001) and managing the information needs of companies (Gefen, 2000 Baskerville et al., 2000).Facilitation of intra-organization communication and collaboration (OLeary, 2001).ERP does the integrating job, allowing the business to spend less time figuring out whats going on and more time for improving (Slater, 1999).Options exist to purchase only the modules needed presently and acquire any extra modules needed in the future (Gefen, 2000). ERPs use an enterprise-wide database which allows access to the data in real time (OLeary, 2001).Both small and large companies can benefit bo th technically and strategically from investments in enterprise systems (Markus and Tanis, 2000) as they enable organizational standardization, eliminate information asymmetries and provide on-line and real-time information (OLeary, 2001).Disadvantages of ERP systemsERPs can have a negative impact on the work practices and culture of an organization (Allen and Kern, 2001 Soh et al., 2000).It takes an average of 8 months after the new system is installed to see any benefits (Koch et al., 1999).Lack of feature-function fit between the companys needs and the packages lendable (Markus and Tanis, 2000).The need for competent consulting staff to extensively customize the ERP (Gefen, 2000) to increase the acceptance of a new system.There is a need for extensive technical support prior to its actual use (Gefen, 2000).2.6 ERP Systems ArchitectureERP vendors understood the limitations of the old legacy information systems, i.e. MRP/MRPII systems, used in large enterprises of the 1970s and 19 80s. Some of these old systems were developed in-house while others were developed by different vendors using several different languages, database management systems and packages, creating number of incompatible solutions unfit for the data flow between them (Seo, 1999). It was not easy to enhance the capacity of such systems or the users were unable to upgrade them with the organizations business changes, strategic goals and new information technologies (Chen, 2001). ERP systems are recognized for their databases and interdepartmental linkages. ERP structure provides a basis for MRP systems to become an enterprise integration tool (Kalakota and Robinson, 2001). Enterprise integration is viewed as developing the availability and accessibility of information within an extended corporate system and using the information system to efficiently coordinate both the decisions and actions of thousands of individuals (Enterprise Integration Laboratory, Univ. of Toronto, 1994).To operate in an enterprise sense, the organizations need to distribute their applications for costing, planning, scheduling etc to accommodate the multiple layers of the organization, its work centers, sites, divisions and management levels (Turban et al., 2001). Multiple languages and currencies are also being included for global applications (Chase and Aquilano, 1995). The characteristics of an ERP system are as followsModular design containing many distinct business modules such as financial, manufacturing, accounting, distribution, etc (Davenport, 1998 Chen, 2001).Use centralized common database management system (DBMS). It is based on distributed, client/server computer systems (Wood and Caldas, 2001, p. 387).The modules are integrated and provide seamless data flow, increasing operational transparency through standard interfaces (Holland et al., 1999).It is generally complex system involving high cost (Davenport, 1998).It is flexible and offer best business practices (Davenport, 2000).It r equires time-consuming tailoring and configuration setups to integrate with the business functions of company (Gefen, 2000).The various functional modules work in real time with online and batch processing capabilities (Davenport et al., 1998).Different ERP vendors offer different ERP systems with some level of specialty but the core modules are almost the same for all of them. The main ERP modules found in the successful ERP systems are as follows (Turban et al., 2001)Accounting managementFinancial managementManufacturing management cropioEnterprise resource planningEnterprise resource planningERP Evaluation and Selection process. A successful ERP project requires selecting an ERP solution, implement the solution, manage changes and examine the practicality of the system, Wei and Wang, (2004). Wrong ERP solution choice would either fail the implementation or weaken the system to a greater impact on the enterprise, Hicks, (1995) Wilson, (1994).Most enterprises often jump into lookin g at ERP functions and features rather than examining the strategy and business processes. It is important for management to know the current strategy, processes and supporting systems compared to what they could be with the new systems, Donovan, (2001).For most enterprises, the decision to implement ERP functionalities will require buying a software package from one of the more popular vendors on ERP market like SAP and Oracle. But the natural selection process is not a square(a) task, hence thorough understanding of what ERP packages are to offer, differences in each of them and what might be at stake in selecting one package over the other should be well examined, Sammon and Adam, (2000).Evaluating and selecting an ERP system can be a very complex process on the other hand, but it should be a fact-based process that will bring the enterprise to the point where comfortable well-informed decisions can be made, Donovan, (2001).Thus, in an online poll conducted by ESI Internationa l survey of 2,000 business professionals, (2005), fig. 1, below, it intelligibly show that most software projects, ERP inclusive, failed due to lack of adequate requirements definition.In addition to the above, typical ERP project implementation can still fail due to wrong solution choice, Donovan, (2001).Therefore, a research carried out by Management Agility Inc, (2005), revealed that it is imperative to adopt a thorough evaluation and evaluation process before adopting any ERP solution in SMEs. Hence, there are eight steps detailed below in the flowchart, fig. 2, for a careful and reasonable level of a successful ERP implementation in SMEs. None of these steps must be rush through or skip to avoid any element of failure.These eight steps can be categorised into 5 stagesPlanningRFPSolution EvaluationNegotiationSelection and AgreementERP Software Hardware (Solution) Evaluation and Selection StepsYesNo format 4Stage 3Stage 2Stage 1Define RequirementsShop Round for ProductClarify RequirementsEvaluation Vendor InquiryInteract with VendorsNegotiate AgreementAction AgreementDefine business case/need and spell-out required values. Be specific. Ensure the business sponsor is willing to push through business case for change.Look round the market for what product is available. Identify vendors that operates and their general approaches to technologies the take. prove with others in the same industry as you are etc.Clarify your requirements and be sure of what you are looking for in line with you business case. chasten requirements if possible and be specific too.Find out what product is looking promising in line with the business need and from which vendor. Identify which vendor and their products and cod interesting ones for demo etc. Request for proposal (RFP).Invite each shortlisted vendor over for a chat and find out more about the product. List out expectations based heavily on business requirements.At this point evaluate this approach. screw you afford to change your current process? Can you afford the change the new product will bring and many more?Initiate Negotiation for the selected product with the selected vendor. Agree on who does what, when are they to be done. Negotiate deliverables, timelines, cost payments schedules and terms, support inclusive.Review all legal terms, finalise the contract and select product for onward implementation.Alignment of business requirement to what the software/hardware can provide. This is the core of the whole exercise else stop the evaluation.Evaluate the product capabilities in line with the business requirement. Evaluate the impact of this product on the business requirement.Stage 5Analyse GapsYesFor effective ERP Solution evaluation and selection process, the above steps are categorised into 5 phases as explained belowStage 1 Plan RequirementBusiness need is defined, along with areas in business that required technical approach.Develop a specific business case with business value for a s olution.Ensure that the project sponsor is willing to articulate the business case for change.Indentify vendors that operate in the line of products you are looking for.Get familiar with the software and hardware root word presence for the solution seeking.Get general view of investment needed, considering software, hardware, other related infrastructure and ongoing support.Based on the survey, evaluate the organisation readiness for the investment and decide whether to continue or not.Now define priorities under must-have and nice-to-have accordingly.Stage 2 Request for Proposals (RFP)Shortlist interesting vendor based on the outcome of market survey for products.Invite interesting vendors for interaction/demonstration of their products.Collects facts/functionalities in line with the business need from various products demonstrations for the developments of unbiased RFP for vendors.Set-up a neutral body to develop RFP using all facts gathered during products demonstration aligned to the business requirements. apportion out RFP that addresses the vendor as a company and the products they offer.Generate basic expectations from an ideal proposal in line with the business need for onward selection of the ideal software vendor.Stage 3 Solution EvaluationIdentify and prioritise remaining gaps between software capabilities as demonstrated and business requirements. stress form in fig. 3 below.Identify how the gaps will be bridge in terms of configuration, configuration, process change or combination of all these.If the gaps cannot be bridge, then discontinue the evaluation exercise immediately.If the gaps can be bridge consider reengineering of those affected business processes affected and continue with the evaluation.Stage 4 pose NegotiationNegotiate with each vendor.Establish software, hardware and other infrastructure agreement requirements, which include version, components, maintenance and support. Also negotiate participation in user groups, license cos ts, maintenance fees and many others.Establish service provider agreement which also include deliverables, timelines, resources, costs and payment schedules.Establish other legal requirements.Stage 5 Selection and AgreementUpon successful negotiation with the right vendorReview all legal terms on privacy protection, operation counselling and data manipulation etc.Approve agreements with the selected vendors.Agree on implementation plan.

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