Saturday, August 3, 2019

Total Quality Management In Construction Essay -- essays research pape

Total Quality Management In Construction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The major new element in world market competition is quality. During the 1970's and 1980's, the Japanese and their U.S. companies demonstrated that high quality is achievable at lower costs and greater customer satisfaction. It was the result of using the management principles of total quality management (TQM). More and more U.S. companies have demonstrated that such achievements are possible Using TQM as a new way to manage. Such companies also found that they were recognized with everyone pulling in the same direction. Improvement had become a way of live.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Improving competitive position and profit has always been the responsibility of management. Before the 1980's, U.S. management was broadly successful. Until then the dominant management model was that of the autocrat. Management, primly senior management, decided how the business was to operate, including what the policies and objectives were; how it was organized; what jobs were established; and how should they be done. It was an unquestioned axiom that if everyone did what the upper management required, the business would be successful.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Organizations are composed of the people in them and the managers who lead them. People respond strongly to leadership expectations and rewards. If they are given little power in their jobs, they have little interest in improving them. If leaders exhort the members for better output but reward (promotions, bonuses, recognition) for mostly higher output, they get the behavior they reward. Quantity over quality has been a common management philosophy in the United States.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The first step in implementing TQM requires the an upper-management change in both philosophy and behavior. Managers must adopt the objectives of customer satisfaction and continuous improvement. They must implement the change to achieve these objectives through their personal and continuous involvement and in the reeducation of everyone in the organization in TQM principles and practices. The past philosophy of management can work reasonably well if a company dominates world markets. When markets become complex and worldwide with more and stronger competitors, a new model is needed. Asian companies and some in the United States have demonstra... ...d competent people, let them do there job. No one knows about the job than the person directly involved with it. 8.Training   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The outcome of training is modified behavior. It may be enhanced interpersonal skills or specific manual skills, but there is a direct, identifiable modification. Training need not consist solely of traditional classroom instruction. Employees can train other employees very effectively.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A company-wide curriculum should be developed that address the needs of each department. Courses should be just long enough to be effective. Anything over three or four days is unlikely to immediately be absorbed into daily work habits. Immediate reinforcement of the training is necessary to be effective. Bibliography 1. R. Stein, The Next Phase of Total Quality Management., Macel Dekker, Inc.,1994. 2. T. Cartin, Principles and Practices of TQM., ASQC Quality Press.,1993. 1. W. Schmidt and J. Finnigan, TQManager., Jossey-Bass Publishers., 1993. 1. B.Brocka and S. Brocka, Quality Management: Implementing The Best Ideas Of the Masters. Irwin, Inc.,1992. 2. H. Kerzner, Project Managment., Van Nostrand Reinhold.,1992.

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