Thursday, August 29, 2019

Indian & European Relations in the 1600s Essay

Spain in North America 1560s: Spanish give up search for Indian gold. Focus on defending their empire from English (who were plundering treasure ships and Caribbean ports) and French Protestants (who began to settle in Florida though the Spanish had already claimed the land). Spanish establish fort at St. Augustine, Florida (1565) to protect route of the treasure fleet. They also massacre French Protestants. Raids by Native Americans wipe out military outposts and religious missions. 1573: The Comprehensive Order for New Discoveries says that missionaries, not conquistadors, have to pacify the land. Franciscan friars set up missions in Nuevo Mà ©xico (New Mexico) and attack Native Americans. Native Americans do forced labor. 1680: Popà © leads revolt, kills 400 Spaniards and forces remaining 1500 to flee to El Paso, and destroys Spanish missions (Pueblo Revolt of 1680). Spaniards return, Native Americans make a deal that lets them practice their own religion and end forced labor, but they have to help th e Spaniards. Outcome: Spanish fail to convert Native Americans, Santa Fe left vulnerable. In Florida, raids by English leave St. Augustine vulnerable. French in North America 1608: First permanent settlement, Quebec, is founded 1662: King Louis XIV turns New France into a royal colony, tries to get people to move there. Cannot get enough people. New France becomes an area for trading furs. Rise of the Iroquois: French introduce diseases that kill many Indians. Indians get guns from fur trade, which leads to war. The Five Iroquois Nations come out on top, have control of the fur trade in Quebec (with the French) and New Amsterdam (with the Dutch). French Jesuits try to win Indian converts. They do not exploit the Indians, and they come to understand their culture. They eventually win converts by adapting Christianity to the needs of the Indians. Outcome: Despite efforts of the Jesuits, French fur trade causes devastation through disease and loss of Indian culture. Iroquois warriors kill many, though they too are harmed: French burned their villages and killed many warriors in 1666 and again in 1690. Dutch in North America Dutch set up a fur-trading post (Fort Orange) along the Hudson River. West India Company has monopoly on the fur. Later, Dutch founded New Amsterdam and made it the capital of New Netherland. Colony didn’t thrive: small population made it vulnerable. Fort Orange succeeds as a peaceful and successful fur-trading post. Dutch near New Amsterdam are more aggressive towards Indians. 1640: war. After the war, West India Company ignores New Netherland, focuses on slave trade. 1664: Dutch fall under control of the English under the Duke of York 1673: Dutch assault momentarily recaptures the colony Edmund Andros takes control, in retaliation imposes English law and demands allegiance. Outcome: Dutch, who had once been dominant, are now a subject people. Chapter 6: Making War and Republican Governments (1776-1789) Patriots demand that colonists join Loyalist or Patriot side – cannot stay neutral. Patriots have advantage to get supporters b/c they control local governments. Patriots make army, and Patriots encouraged people to support the army by taking a more active role in govt. Character of politics changes when common people exert influence: democratic army launches age of republican revolution. Americans forced to retreat, Britain pushed back Americans into PA. When winter comes, Britain halts their campaign and Patriots catch them off guard, winning small victories. Armies and Strategies Howe doesn’t want to destroy Americans, just wants them to surrender and compromise. Howe cannot win decisive victory, Washington avoids defeat. Washington’s handicaps: Fights only defensively, has unfit recruits, Radical Whig Patriots believe army is threat to liberty. American Victory at Saratoga Britain’s goal: isolate New England North’s colonial secretary Germain’s plan: attack Albany from 3 sides. Burgoyne, St. Leger, and Howe will attack. Howe’s different plan: attack Philadelphia (home of Continental Congress), end rebellion w/ single victory. Howe uses his plan slowly. Continental Congress flees to PA’s interior. Howe’s slow attack directly leads to defeat of Burgoyne’s army. Burgoyne’s actions: fights, then stalls. Americans led by General Gates slows Burgoyne’s progress. Burgoyne’s army stuck in Saratoga, NY. Beaten back while trying to raid VT. Has troops w/drawn to help Howe. Meanwhile, Gates’ forces grow. October 1777: Burgoyne forced to surrender. Turning point of the war. Social and Financial Perils British naval blockade causes disruption in New England fishing industry, and British occupation causes decrease in domestic trade and manufacturing. People move out, decrease in population. Chesapeake colonies: blockade cuts tobacco exports. Short supply of goods = army starts getting supplies from the people. Women and Household Production Women: 1 Increase output of homespuns 2 Participate in farmwork Despite this, goods remain scarce and prices rise. War also created deprivation, displacement, and death. War divides communities b/c of Patriots’ violence. Financial Crisis State govts are weak, don’t create new taxes. Creation of fiat money, Continental Congress and colonies’ economies crumble. Valley Forge Starvation and sickness for Americans during the winter in Valley Forge, but Baron von Steuben raises morale. Continental army becomes tougher and better disciplined. The Path to Victory, 1778-1783 1778: Continental Congress allies w/ France. Alliance gives Continental Congress money, supplies, and later troops. Also confronts Britain w/ international war that challenges domination of Atlantic. The French Alliance Alliance starts w/ secret loan to colonies to avenge France’s loss of Canada to Britain. Later turns into a formal alliance. Negotiating the Treaty American diplomats ensure treaty specifies that French support cannot end until the United States is independent. Alliance revives colonies and Continental Congress. The British Response War is becoming unpopular in Britain. Some British support Americans and campaign for domestic reforms. George III initially committed to crushing rebellion, but after British defeat at Saratoga changes his mind. Tries to prevent American and French alliance (Parliament repeals Tea Act, Prohibitory acts, and renounces right to tax colonies). War in the South French and Spanish (who joined the war against Britain in 1779) agendas cause British to shift focus of the war to the South. Britain’s Southern Strategy British plan: 1 Focus on winning tobacco and rice colonies (VA, Carolinas, GA) then rely on local Loyalists to hold them 2 Exploit racial divisions between slaves and Patriot owners – get slaves to flee At first, British are winning. But tide turns. Dutch join fight against British. France dispatches troops to America Partisan Warfare in the Carolinas General Green fights in Carolinas. Fighting goes back and forth. Britain is weakened by this war of attrition, and British decide to give up Carolinas to Greene and focus on VA instead. Benedict Arnold and Conflicting Loyalties Benedict Arnold switched from American side to British side. Fights for George III in VA. Britain Defeated Washington and the French fleet surround Cornwallis and his troops on land. Cornwallis is outnumbered, cannot escape by sea. October 1781: Cornwallis surrenders in Yorktown The Patriot Advantage Why the Americans won the war: 1 Some British mistakes 2 Widespread Patriots in America 3 Many Americans support war through taxes and joining the militia 4 Patriots led by experienced politicians 5 George Washington Americans refuse to support British army, refuse to accept occupation by Loyalist forces, and endure the inflation caused by the war. Diplomatic Triumph Peace talks begin in 1782, but French and Spanish stall b/c they still hope for major naval victory or territorial conquest. Ignoring Treaty of Alliance, Americans sign a separate peace w/ the British. September 1783: Treaty of Paris. Great Britain recognizes independence of the colonies. Britain gets: 1 Canada 2 Rights for merchants to pursue legal claims for prewar debts 3 Americans will encourage state legislatures to return confiscated property to Loyalists and grant them citizenship America gets: 1 Great Lakes and land east of the Mississippi River 2 Fishing rights 3 Freedom of navigation on the Mississippi 4 British cannot seize property like slaves 1783: Treaty of Versailles – Britain makes peace w/ France and Spain Chapter 10: Creating Republican Institutions, 1776 – 1787 The State Constitutions: How Much Democracy? Many states had written state constitutions when the Continental Congress urged them to in 1776. The Rise of Popular Politics, 1820-1829 Expansion of the franchise = most democratic symbol of the Democratic Revolution. Gives ordinary men more power than anywhere else in the world. The Decline of the Notables and the Rise of Parties American Revolution weakened the deferential society, but didn’t overthrow it. Wealthy notables still dominated the political system at first. 1810: Struggle to expand suffrage began. State legislatures grant broader voting rights to diffuse criticism and deter migration to the west. The new voters refused to support politicians that flaunted their high social status. Democratic politics is corrupt. Martin Van Buren: 1 Created political machine, the Albany Regency. 2 Patronage: gives government jobs to party members in return for their loyalty. (Spoils system) 3 Insists on party discipline, requires elected officials to follow dictates of the party caucus. The Election of 1824 Five candidates, all Republicans, campaigned for presidency. Jackson received most popular votes, but Adams won because Clay made a â€Å"corrupt bargain† with Adams, where Clay would vote Adams into presidency if he would become secretary of state. Presidency of John Quincy Adams: the last notable president Supports American System (protective tariffs, national bank, subsidized internal improvements) Resistance to the American System: southerners oppose protective tariffs because they raised the price of manufactures, and smallholders feared powerful banks that could force them into bankruptcy. Politicians oppose American System on constitutional grounds (for example, saying that the national government’s income couldn’t fund state improvement projects because those projects were the responsibility of the states). Southerners were also angry about the Tariff of 1828, which raised duties on raw materials and textiles. Southerners also dislike Adams’s pro-Indian policy. Jacksonian Impact 1 Expanded potential authority of President by identifying it with the voice of the people. 2 Upheld national authority by threatening use of military force, laying foundation for Lincoln’s later defense of the Union. 3 Reinvigorated Jeffersonian tradition of limited central government by undermining American System of national banking, protective tariffs, and internal improvements. 4 Undermined constitutional jurisprudence of Marshall by appointing Taney as Marshall’s successor. Taney partially reversed nationalist and property-rights decisions of Marshall. Example: In the case Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co. (1837), Taney says that a charter doesn’t necessarily bestow a monopoly, and a legislature could charter competition (in this case, a competing bridge co.) to help the public. This decision directly challenges what Marshall said in the Dartmouth College v. Woodward case, where Marshall stresses the binding nature of a contract by saying that a state cannot invalidate a contract. Other cases that place limits on Marshall’s nationalistic interpretations by enhancing role of state governments: Mayor of New York v. Miln (1837): New York state can use â€Å"police power† to inspect health of immigrants. Briscoe v. Bank of Kentucky (1837): When it issues currency, a bank owned by the Kentucky doesn’t violate the provision of the Constitution that prohibits states from issuing â€Å"bills of credit.† As a result of the Taney Court’s decisions, the role of state governments in commerce was greatly enhanced. 5 States write new constitutions that extend democracy, many of which introduce classical liberalism (laissez-faire). Laissez-faire says the government role in the economy should be limited.

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